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Adrian Selin: Novgorodskoe obščestvo v ėpochu Smuty (presented by Adrian Selin)


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Введение
Глава 1. Источники исследования
Глава 2. Историография
Глава 3. Историческая география
Глава 4. Политическая история и хронология
Глава 5. Общественные группы Новгорода начала XVII века
Глава 6. Стратегия поведения и повседневная жизнь 
         новгородцев в 1611-1617 гг. Заключение

The book is a study of Novgorod servicemen in early 17th century based on studying the archives of Novgorod City Office (Prikaznaja Izba) of 1611-1617 and the archives of Land Estate and Ambassador Offices (Pomestnyj and Posolskij Prikazy). The method of the study is prosophographical analysis: the reconstruction of history of an epoch through analyzing biographies of some social group (or groups). In the study the groups of Novgorod gentry (dvoryanstvo) and bureaucracy – secretaries and clerks. The results were included in the database: http://nwae.spb.ru/documents/selin/gentry.rar.

Political system appeared in Novgorod in Summer 1611 was the compromises between general Delagardie who had conquered the city and the city elite. The treaty however was alive in the trouble circumstances of the Moscow State collapse and was at some extent mutually beneficial. This political system had evolved in 1613-1615 to the system of open occupation. That  happened  because of political changes in Moscow State and in the same time because of the changes in the attitude of Swedish Kingdom power to the idea of prince Carl Philippe to be a czar in Moscow.

The first chapter of the book is a review of the sources. The idea of the chapter is to show that the preserved documents  from the archives of Novgorod City Office are not the dispersed scraps but the complex of documents of different Novgorod offices’ activities open to be studied. The systematization of the documents is also provided in the chapter. Also other sources on the study of Novgorod servicemen used in the research are considered in the chapter.

The second chapter is a historiographical review of the theme of studying Novgorod of 1611-1617. The specific state of Novgorod during the Time of Troubles received a special score in the early Romanovs’ time; then this score formed the historiographical views of 18-19th cc. The bolshevics’ historiography generally also followed the scores of first quarter of 17th c. After the Soviet researchers’ headed by Lev Cherepnin visit to Sweden (in 1950s) the documents of Novgorod City Office archives returned back to Russian historiography. Meanwhile the Anders Shöberg’s seminar appeared in Sweden. The idea of the seminar was to study the language of early 17th century documents from Novgorod. The description of the Ockupationsarkivet från Novgorod collection was the significant result of the Seminar activity. The last some twenty years the history of early 17th century Novgorod is again under the close consideration of the researchers. The political history of the City was studied by I. Tjumentsev, V. Arakcheev and especially by E. Kobzareva.

The third chapter includes the historical-geographical review of Novgorod Land during the Time of Troubles. The fortresses of Novgorod Land, the temporary fortifications and roads are considered in the chapter. Special part of the chapter deals with the space representations of Novgorod gentry in early 17th c.

The fourth chapter is a review of political history of early 17th c. Novgorod Land. Special sections deal with the relations between Novgorod and neighbor territories: Pskov, Ustjuzhna, Kargopol and Beloozero. The biographies of Novgorod politicians – boyar Prince Ivan  Odoevskij and his family, metropolitan Isidor, Khutyn archimandrite Cyprian are also studied in the chapter.

In the fifth chapter different groups on Novgorod servicemen are studied: gentry (dvoryane and deti boyarskije), tartars and newly baptized persons (novokrescheny), former Novgorod landholders (svoezemtsy), St. Sophia servants, secretaries and clerks.

In the sixth chapter the main phenomenon of early 17th c. Novgorod social life are studied. Between these: the attitude to the political propaganda, the ways of ideological struggle, the attitude to life and death, family and marriage, widowhood, relation between generations and neighbors, attitude to the subject space, church parish and religiosity, deviant behavior.

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